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High Strength Materials

SHEFFIELD™ #10 – (4140/50 mod.) Hot Rolled, Heat Treated Alloy

For over 65 years, Sheffield #10 has been a material of choice where toughness is required and minimizing fatigue failure is critical.

Sheffield #10 out performs many other trade name grades, as well as commercial grades of steel, because of its distinctive physical properties. The high physical properties are achieved through CLEAN STEEL TECHNOLOGY and comprehensive testing.

Consider Sheffield #10 as an upgrade to commercial grades of steel such as 1018, 1045, 4140, 4340, and 4150.

Benefits and Advantages

Clean Steel Technology - a refinement process that delivers a tough, fatigue resistant steel.

Proprietary Chemistry - a unique alloy chemistry that provides elevated strength and deep uniform hardness, excellent cleanliness, and refinement to the grain structure to enhance the fatigue resistance of the steel.

Uniform Hardness - will maintain its hardness and strength where extensive turning and machining are required.

Electric Furnace Melt - higher degree of control to enhance grain size, shape and overall chemistry.

Vacuum Degassed - eliminates impurities in the steel; resulting in a stronger more durable product which will extend service life.

Heat Treated - delivered with a hardness range of 269/341 BHN; eliminates additional and
unnecessary thermal treatment.

Machined Straightened - eliminates excessive distortion; our straightness is 1/8" in any 5 feet; 2 times better than the industry standard.

Other Finish Options:

Redi-Finish - Supplied pre-machined oversize; to allow for final clean-up. Custom cut lengths or randoms available in flats and squares.

Flat Ground Stock - Supplied precision ground to tight tolerances;18" and 36" lengths.

Typical Applications

  • Arbors
  • Journals
  • Stub Shafts
  • Bolts
  • Line Shafts
  • Tool Shanks
  • Crank Shafts
  • Mine Car Axles
  • Tie Rods
  • Drive Shafts
  • Pinions
  • Textile Parts
  • Drag Line Parts
  • Piston Rods
  • Valve Stems
  • Feed Screws
  • Rings
  • Wear Strips
  • Gears
  • Spindles
  • Worm Gears
  • Hubs
  • Studs
  • Wrist Pin

Typical Mechanical Properties

Hardness 269/341 BHN
Tensile Strength 156,000 P.S.I.
Yield Strength 125,000 P.S.I.
Fine Grain 6 - 8
Elongation in 2" 16%
Reduction of Area 55%
Machinability 50%
(Based on 1/2" Diameter Specimen)

Available Lengths

10/13 Ft Random Lengths
20/26 Ft Random Lengths
Custom Cut Lengths

Available Sizes (Squares)*

5/8" 1" 1-1/2" 2-1/2" 4"
3/4" 1-1/8" 1-3/4" 3" 5"
7/8" 1-1/4" 2" 3-1/2" 6"

Available Sizes (Flats)*

1/4" x 1" 1/2" x 3-1/2" 1" x 6" 2-1/2" x 4"
1/4" x 1-1/2" 1/2" x 4" 1-1/4" x 2" 3" x 6"
1/4" x 2" 1/2" x 5" 1-1/4 x 3"  
1/4" x 3" 1/2" x 6" 1-1/4 x 3-1/2"
1/4" x 4" 5/8" x 2" 1-1/2" x 2"
1/4" x 5" 3/4" x 2" 1-1/2" x 2-1/2"
3/8" x 1-1/2" 3/4" x 3" 1-1/2" x 3"
3/8" x 2" 3/4" x 4" 1-1/2" x 4"
3/8" x 2-1/2" 3/4" x 5" 1-1/2" x 5"
3/8" x 3" 3/4" x 6" 1-1/2" x 6"
3/8" x 4" 1" x 1-1/4" 2" x 2-1/2"
1/2" x 1" 1" x 2" 2" x 3"
1/2" x 1-1/2" 1" x 2-1/2" 2" x 3-1/2"
1/2" x 2" 1" x 3" 2" x 4"
1/2" x 2-1/2" 1" x 4" 2" x 5"
1/2" x 3" 1" x 5" 2-1/2" x 3-1/2"

Available Sizes (Rounds)*

1/2" 1-3/4" 3" 5-1/2" 8" 11-1/4"
5/8" 1-7/8" 3-1/4" 5-3/4" 8-1/4" 11-1/2"
3/4" 2" 3-1/2" 6" 8-1/2" 12"
7/8" 2-1/8" 3-3/4" 6-1/4" 8-3/4" 13"
1" 2-1/4" 4" 6-1/2" 9" 13-1/2"
1-1/8" 2-3/8" 4-1/4" 6-3/4" 9-1/2" 14"
1-1/4" 2-1/2" 4-1/2" 7" 9-3/4" 15"
1-3/8" 2-5/8" 4-3/4" 7-1/4" 10" 16"
1-1/2" 2-3/4" 5" 7-1/2" 10-1/2"  
1-5/8" 2-7/8" 5-1/4" 7-3/4" 11"

*Typically, 10" Rounds and above are furnished as Rough Turned Oversized, to finish to the nominal size, and have an approximate 500 RMS. All squares over 4-1/2" are produced from plate; standard plate tolerances apply. Certain flats may be furnished from cut plate; standard plate tolerances apply.

Machining Data

Note: Caution should be exercised when cold working any hardened alloy material. Use equipment of sufficient capacity that is in good condition. Utilize machine operators that are experienced in working with hardened alloys and insure appropriate safety gear is worn.

High Speed

Depth of Cut .150°
Speed 70fpm
Feed .015 inch/revolution
Tooling C6


Depth of Cut .150°
Speed 260 brazed, 330 throw-away
Feed .015 inch/revolution
Tooling C6
(Cutting Fluid: Soluble Oil 1:20)


Point Angle 118°, relief 12°
Helix Angle 29 point: plan
Feed .005 inch/revolution

Sheffield vs. Commercial Steels

smaller furnace greater control of the melt
large heats – less refinement – little control
the manufacturing process that eliminates impurities in steel and improves fatigue resistance
removes impurities in the steel to refine the chemistry and builds toughness
low phosphorus, low sulfur, nickel enhanced cleaner fine grain chemistry; improved strength
commercial practice follows minimum standards
thermal process is verified against strict guidelines
lacks depth and uniformity of hardness compared to Sheffield Steels
typical tensile strength 156,000 PSI
typical yield strength 125,000 PSI
typical hardness 269/341 BHN
typically 20% less strength than Sheffield Steels. More susceptible to fatigue failure
2X better than the industry standard; 1/8" in any 5 ft
1/4" in any 5 feet
thermal treatment process to reduce the chances of "walking"" or movement during machining
excellent toughness; toughness resists fatigue failure
lower degree of toughness – subject to fatigue failure, the number one cause of shaft failure in heavy industry
fine uniform grain promotes ease of machining
not consistent; hard and soft spots
tensile, yield, elongation, reduction of area, and jominy are checked every 10,000 lbs, resulting in better control over physicals
commercially done at 50,000 lb increments less control of physical properties
Sheffield Steels offer optimum performance, high
quality, and improved service life for tough maintenance applications.
SAE establishes safe minimum standards, not intended to provide optimum erformance.
* Based on 1/2" Diameter Specimen

Sheffield™ Steels Welding Data

Note: This data is for information purposes only and is not intended to be instructional. It is not to be used as a substitute for the AWS welding procedures appropriate for the welding of medium alloy Quench & Tempered Materials. In all cases the employment of trained/qualified welders, the observance of sound welding practice, and adherence to AWS procedures is strongly urged.

Our Proprietary Chemistry, Q & T, through hardened products are readily welded utilizing the "Standard Low-Hydrogen Method". Use of Low Hydrogen rods, such as E7018, and E8018, provides greater ductility. Those rods have been used with a high degree of success. In instances where pre-heat is not possible, use of a 309 Stainless Rod should be considered. Where higher tensile is required, a 10018 rod may be used with attention to the pre and post thermal treatment.

Preheat the weld area. A preheat and interpass temperature of 500°F to 700°F is generally sufficient. Exact furnace controlled temperature is not required, a heat crayon will provide adequate guidance. When using a torch, move rapidly and evenly to provide a general increase in temperature. Maintain preheat temperature during weld. Post-heat following the same procedure allowing the assembly to slow-cool, thus minimizing shrinkage of the weld.

Use the smallest diameter electrode that will do the job. Travel rapidly and use several small stringer beads. To help minimize welding stresses, peen the beads, after each pass, while they are still hot. Note that stick welding is preferred simply because of the tendency of the semi-automatic process to apply too great of a deposit, which translates into higher heat.

Make every attempt to remove material stresses prior to welding. Insure that the weld surfaces are clean and free of contaminants, such as grease, dust, oil, etc.

After welding, stress relieve at 1000°F to 1250°F, holding at that temperature one hour per inch of
greatest cross section. Insure that the welded unit is transferred to the furnace quickly. Do not allow the temperature to drop below the pre-heat and interpass temperature when transferring to the furnace.

Adherence to sound welding practice, the elimination of moisture, the minimization of dramatic
temperature change, and use of the Standard Low-Hydrogen Method, will greatly improve your chances for exceptional welds.

Helpful tip: Storing and re-drying electrodes
All electrodes must be completely dry or they may cause major problems when welding alloy steels. Purchase only electrodes that are in hermetically sealed containers. Store the rods in those containers. Open containers should be stored at 250°F to 300°F. Typical re-drying temperatures are 650°F to 700°F for one hour. (Longer at lower temperatures is not the same). Discard any electrodes that look noticeably different after the re-drying process. When re-drying electrodes, remove them from the container and spread them out in a furnace. Do not exceed the 700°F temperature.

Information above is specific to our Sheffield™ #10 and Sheffield™ #20 TG&P shaft materials. This information does not apply to "Free Machining" grades. For welding data pertaining to other products offered, please contact our technical support staff for more details.

Associated Steel Corporation is the sole licensed agent for all tradename products that were formerly sold by North American Steel Company. For all inquiries and order placements, please contact Associated Steel Corp.

Phone: 1.800.321.9300
Email: mail@associatedsteel.com
Web: www.associatedsteel.com

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