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Wear Resistant Materials

SHEFFIELD™ 45XL – 400BHN Wear Plate

Sheffield 45XL is a leader in abrasion resistant wear plate products used in severe service applications. It is different from commercial grade wear plates.

Sheffield 45XL is made in controlled heat lots. The addition of Molybdenum contributes to a chemistry rich enough to provide superior wear resistance, but lean enough to have a low Carbon Equivalency (CE), for safety in fabrication.

Sheffield 45XL will resist sliding abrasion and abrasive impact. It is an unusually tough product that responds well to all methods of fabrication.

Do not settle for other plate products that only offer a surface hardness or that "shock" the plate to hardness with no depth of hardness. When Sheffield 45XL is specified you are guaranteed "true" thru-hardness and uniformity. Sheffield 45XL extends service life and offers real wear performance.

Typical Mechanical Properties

Hardness 400/440 BHN
Tensile Strength 182,000 P.S.I.
Yield Strength 142,000 P.S.I.
Carbon Equivalency 47
Grain Type Tempered Martensite
Reduction of Area 59%
Elongation 14%

Typical Chemical Analysis

C MN Ph S Si Ni
.20 1.00 .025 max .005 .50 max 1.2 max
Cr Mo Ti Other
.55/.90 .50 max .03 (variances by heat lot)*
* Boron, Vanadium, Aluminum and Columbium may be added
   at the discretion of the producing mill.

Sheffield 45XL is supplied in a typical range of 400/440 BHN. The carbon content is restricted to mild steel levels. Alloying elements, such as Nickel, Chromium, Molybdenum, Titanium and Copper are added to ensure depth and uniformity of hardness. These elements promote the creation of carbides which contribute to the unique high wear resistant properties of Sheffield 45XL.

Advantages

• High Wear Resistance
• High Shock Resistance
• Low Carbon Equivalency
• Excellent Toughness
• Predictability in Service
• Deep Uniform Hardness
• Inclusion Shape Control
• Ease of Fabrication
• Good Weldability

Field Applications

  • Chain Conveyors
  • Bucket Liners
  • Fan Blades
  • Mixer Components
  • Coal Chutes
  • Hoppers
  • Levelers
  • Kiln Blades
  • Wear Rings
  • Jaw Crusher Plates
  • Hammers
  • Screen Decks
  • Bark Conveyors
  • Wear Guides
  • Truck Bed Liners
  • Cutting Edges
  • Baler Plates
  • Bucket Lips
  • Shakeout Liners
  • Chain Links
  • Ore Liner Plates
  • Wood Chippers
  • Cone Crushers
  • Grouser Bars
  • Screw Conveyors
  • Discharge Plates

Available Sizes*

1/8" 3/8" 3/4" 1-1/2" 3"
3/16" 1/2" 1" 2" 4"
1/4" 5/8" 1-1/4" 2-1/2"  
*1/8" thick plate is available in one size only 60"x 120".
   The 3/6" thick plate is available only as 48" x 144"
   and 96" x 144".

Available Widths and Lengths*

48" x 96" 96" x 144"
48" x 144" 96" x 288"
48" x 288"  

High Def. Plasma Cutting Tolerance

+/- 1/16" on width (typ.)

Oxy-Cutting Tolerance

+/- 1/8" on width (typ.)

Sheffield 45XL is engineered to replace most other commercial grade abrasion resistant plate products including, but not limited to: HSLA, T-1, A36, AR360, AR400 and A514.Sheffield 45XL is a true "thru-hardened" wear plate that offers high performance, extended service life and improved reliability. Sheffield 45XL is easier to machine, weld and form than other AR400 commercial grade wear plates.

Caution: Wear plate products are designed for liner applications; they are not intended for use as self-supporting structures or lifting devices. Fabrication work on any wear plate products should only be accomplished by persons experienced in dealing with high hardness alloy materials.

SHEFFIELD 45XL vs. Commercial 400BHN Plate

SHEFFIELD 45XL 400BHN PLATE
Designed to provide maximum service life. Designed to minimize movement warp and fracture, when oxy cutting and cold work are present. Designed for excellence in resistance to all forms of sliding abrasion; impact, and gouging. Adequate product for general wear areas. Engineered primarily for economy. Subject to warp (oil canning) during cut and weld operations. Subject to mushrooming under heavy load.
Alloy chemistry engineered for maximum abrasion resistance. Deep and uniform hardness. Carbon steel type chemistry. Hardness diminishes away from surface. Susceptible to hard and soft spots.
Custom "Carbide Former" chemistry enhanced resistance to wear related failure. Lean carbon steel type chemistry relies on rapid cooling to shock the plate to hardness. Most types are delivered "as-quenched", not tempered.
Free from hard spots – means better, more predictable, drilling and machining. Less tool breakage. Hard and soft spots. Unpredictable response to fabrication processes. Unpredictable wear.
Low Carbon Equivalency C.E. (47 typical). User friendly. Responds well to fabrication in the field. Low Carbon Equivalency C.E. (54 typical). Subject to warp, twist and bow in thermal cutting and welding operations.
Welds with "Standard Low Hydrogen Method." Welds with Standard Low Hydrogen Process
Responds well to localized flame hardening in the field; such as the cutting edge on a bucket. Inquire on flame hardening information. Erratic response to flame-hardening. Warp and fracture are likely.
Available in cut-to-size pieces to 4" thick. Varies with vendor.
Information stated is general in nature, for informational purposes, and is stated relative to other high hardness wear plate products. Caution should be exercised when dealing with any hardened alloy or carbon steel. Utilize experienced machine operators familiar with hardened steel products. ensure protective gear is utilized.

SHEFFIELD™ 45XL General Fabrication Data

CAUTION: Exercise extreme caution when performing hot and cold work operations on any through hardened wear plate due to the high hardness of the product. Utilize operators experienced in working with hardened alloys. Follow sound procedures, appropriate for the general classifications of those.

DRILLING - Sheffield 45XL

Cobalt or carbide drills are excellent resources but not required. Hardened twist drills, or High Speed (M-2 type) drills should be adequate. Flood with generous coolant, (20% soluble oil). Use heavy capacity high quality equipment to minimize chatter and vibration. Increase feed and lower speed to avoid "glazing". Where possible, use a hand feed as opposed to a power feed. Power feeds tend to over-power and create small chips which may lodge, or jam. Hand feed allows greater control and "feel" to maintain a scraping type of motion, (long chip). We suggest use of a pilot hole, then follow-up with a reamer type of action. "Dubb", or dull, the edge on the second drill to create a scraping motion, as opposed to a cutting action. For cobalt alloyed high speed tools (example: over-carburized M42), utilize tools with a tapered shank and long helical short bit. Flood with lubricant – 20% diluted soluble oil. Where multiple holes are required you may want to consider tungsten carbide tipped tooling, or solid carbide tools. (ISO K-10 or K-20).

Drill bit preparation. Grind away the metal behind the lip to obtain clearance. (10° is preferred). Most drill failures, that occur when drilling hard plate, are along the land, not at the entry point. Thin the point significantly at the entry point.

TAPPING - Sheffield 45XL

Tapped holes are difficult in hardened wear plates. In many cases, where there is a requirement for tapped holes, consider the use of an oversize "drill through hole". Then insert a plug, and tap the plug. If you are required to tap into the wear plate, ensure that the hole size is as large or larger than the thickness of the plate. Start with a smaller "pilot" hole.

MACHINING - Sheffield 45XL

Responds similar to a 45Rc alloy material.

All of the standard precautions observed for machining hardened alloys prevail; Use equipment of sufficient capacity to avoid chatter and vibration. Increase pressure – decrease speed. Avoid glazing. (glazing is similar to flame or surface hardening of the immediate work area.). Utilize machine operators familiar with machining hardened alloys and tool steels, to the degree of hardness mentioned above.

The hardness of Sheffield 45XL will be throughout, and uniform. Which means you should not encounter the hard and soft spots typically found in commercial grade AR wear plate.

MILLING - Sheffield 45XL

Use of carburized cobalt alloyed high speed tools has been very successful. (M35). Improved
efficiencies may be obtained by utilizing ISO P25 tooling for grooving, or K10 and K20 tooling.

Use C-5 or 6 Carbide tools     50 to 100SFPM     .001/.003 Chip Load     Flood with coolant

FIELD-USE (Job-Site) FLAME HARDENING OF SHEFFIELD WEAR STRIPS

Due to rolling restrictions on Sheffield Hot Rolled Wear Strips, the chemistry may differ from our wear plate chemistry; however, the same technique is usable on Sheffield 45XL. Effective technique will be developed by trial and error.

CAUTION: Flame hardening these materials should be conducted by persons familiar with the flame hardening of alloy materials containing .26/.36 carbon. Follow safety precautions appropriate for the handling of hardened alloy steels; to include safety glasses, protective head gear, steel toed shoes, etc. Taking carbon and alloy steels to maximum surface hardness ranges, such as 50 RC, changes the structure and the physical properties of the material. Caution should be exercised when working.

Heat the local surface rapidly with an oxy/acetylene gas flame, until the edge appears light orange. Cool at a rate appropriate for hardening. Quench medium should be caustic, water, brine, oil, or air. Excellent results have been obtained utilizing a solution that is a plastic solution of oil and water. More rapid cooling will result in the highest hardness.

If possible, use mechanical equipment for proper location and even application of heat. This will ensure correct timing of the hardening process.

Flame Temperature 1550°F – 1650°F (Salmon or Light Orange)
• Apply flame to the edge to be hardened
• Move along the entire edge.

You may use a wax heat crayon (Tempil® stick), to verify temperature. As a general rule, the resulting hardness should be in the range of 50 to 62RC, with a depth of 1/8" to 3/16", depending on the actual carbon and alloy content of the material. Caution is urged regarding thin cross sections, as the hardness will be localized, but throughout the thickness of the cross section. Caution: High hardness materials exhibit brittleness and fracture potential is elevated.

Note: The above flame-hardening information is general in nature and does not address subsequent operations, and/or, fitness for purpose, or any safety issues that might develop from materials that have been thermally altered by our customers or their agents. We are pleased to quote "finished" parts made from our materials that may include various hardening methods. We are unable to guarantee the quality or safety and appropriateness of work performed by others.

FORMING - Sheffield 45XL

Sheffield 45XL is a field-proven "FORMABLE" wear plate. The carbon equivalency
rating (C.E.) is one of the lowest in the industry.

ALWAYS FORM AGAINST THE GRAIN. If forming is to be done as a subsequent operation at your location, request that the grain direction be marked on each piece prior to shipment from North American Steel.

Forming any hard plate should only be attempted by persons experienced in forming hard plate, or
hardened wear plate. Hand grind edges to remove slag and eliminate potential crack initiation points. ensure plate is at room temp., or slightly warmer. Allow minimum bend radius of 4T, (4 times the thickness of the plate). Best results will be obtained by utilizing multiple hits to form the radius. Utilize a broad radius top die and an "Air-Die", or open-die for the bottom.

WELDING - Sheffield 45XL

Utilize the "Standard Low-Hydrogen Method". (E7018).

Improve your chances for sound welds when welding hardened wear plate products:
• ELIMINATE MOISTURE
• MINIMIZE HEAT
• AVOID DRAMATIC TEMPERATURE CHANGE

To minimize dramatic temperature change and evaporate any residual moisture; preheat the weld area. (In instances where pre-heat is not possible, consider use of a 309 Stainless Rod. A preheat and interpass temperature of 250°F to 350°F is generally sufficient. (350°F to 450°F for 500 BHN Plate). Exact furnace controlled temperature is not required, a heat crayon will give adequate guidance.

If you use a torch to pre-heat, move rapidly and cover a broad to provide a general increase in
temperature. Maintain preheat temperature during weld. Allow the assembly to slow-cool.

Select the smallest diameter electrode that will do the job. (Stick welding is preferred simply because of the tendency of the semi-automatic process to apply too great of a deposit). Travel rapidly and use several small stringer beads. Cold work applied prior to welding (machining, forming, etc.), may result in stress build-up. Every attempt to ensure proper alignment of the welded sections should be made. "Dogging", or clamping to correct alignment problems will result in retained stress. To help minimize welding stresses, peen the beads, after each pass, while they are still hot.

ELIMINATE MOISTURE:
Make sure weld rods are completely dry. Use rods from a sealed container, or utilize a portable oven per the directions of the manufacturer of the welding rods. Remember that All Quench and Tempered Wear Plate products are engineered to address severe wear. The Tensile properties of these products are very high (200,000PSI), for that reason structural welds, and welds requiring strengths at those levels are to be avoided. Your adherence to sound welding practice, the employment of The Standard Low Hydrogen Process, and attention to surface cleanliness, and awareness of the effect of retained stress, will greatly improve your chances of obtaining exceptional welds.

Hardness Chart and Plate Weights

Hardness Conversion**

Rockwell
"C"
Tensile
Strength
Brinell
(BHN)*
20 110,000 PSI 226
21 112,000 PSI 231
22 115,000 PSI 237
23 117,000 PSI 243
24 119,000 PSI 247
25 123,000 PSI 253
26 125,000 PSI 258
27 128,000 PSI 264
28 131,000 PSI 271
29 135,000 PSI 279
30 138,000 PSI 286
31 141,000 PSI 294
32 146,000 PSI 301
33 149,000 PSI 311
34 152,000 PSI 319
35 156,000 PSI 327
36 161,000 PSI 336
37 166,000 PSI 344
38 171,000 PSI 353
39 177,000 PSI 362
Rockwell
"C"
Tensile
Strength
Brinell
(BHN)*
40 182,000 PSI 371
41 188,000 PSI 381
42 194,000 PSI 390
43 201,000 PSI 400
44 208,000 PSI 409
45 215,000 PSI 421
46 221,000 PSI 432
47 229,000 PSI 442
48 238,000 PSI 451
49 246,000 PSI 464
50 255,000 PSI 475
51 264,000 PSI 487
52 273,000 PSI 500
53 283,000 PSI -
54 292,000 PSI -
55 301,000 PSI -
56 313,000 PSI -
57 325,000 PSI -
58 338,000 PSI -
59 351,000 PSI -

* Values based on Brinell 10mm Standard Ball (3000kgf)

** This conversion calculator gives approximate hardness values for various hardness scales based on the Rockwell "C" Scale. The Hardness Tensile Strength relations may vary according to the processing history or the chemical composition of the steel.

Plate Weight Chart

Thickness of
Plate
Weight Lbs
Per Square Inch
Weight Lbs
Per Square Foot
1/8" plate .0365 5-1/4 #
3/16" plate .055 8#
1/4" plate .073 10-1/2 #
5/16" plate .083 12 #
3/8" plate .108 15-1/2 #
1/2" plate .145 20-3/4 #
5/8" plate .180 26 #
3/4" plate .218 31-1/4 #
1" plate .290 41-1/2 #
1-1/4" plate .363 52 #